The immune system is found in many organisms` bodies and its importance appears through its ability to protect the body against pathogens attacking the body. The immune system is divided into two parts determined by the speed and specificity of the reaction: The first is adaptive Immunity, which contains T and B cells. The second one is innate Immunity, which contains monocytes among other cells. Monocytes are generated in the bone marrow; they circulate in the bloodstream and swallow pathogens and dead cells. They can also move into tissues where they differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages are the primary type of phagocytic cells in the immune system. Like monocytes, they also swallow pathogens, bacteria and dead or damaged cells in the tissues.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a signaling molecule which is important in the process of the immune system response by affecting several types of cells such as monocytes and macrophages. While many studies examined the influence of IFNγ in the presence of pathogens, the effect of IFNγ without pathogenic interaction remains less clear. In this study, we examine the influence of IFNγ injection on the activation of monocytes and their differentiation to macrophages in the intestines of mice.
To study IFNγ influence, we have done five experiments on mice who have monocytes and macrophages with green fluorescent protein. We examine the influence of IFNγ on the activation of monocytes by measuring the level of cell surface proteins. We also checked RNA levels of cytokines and other activation molecules that are expressed in monocytes by real-time PCR and next-generation RNA sequencing. Moreover, we counted the number of monocytes that are able to enter the tissues and study the influence of IFNγ on activation molecules on macrophages in the intestine.
Our results show changes in the activation markers and genes that are linked to the activation of monocytes. We also saw a decrease in the number of monocytes that are able to enter the tissues In addition, we saw a decrease of the activation markers on macrophages. We conclude that the injection of IFNγ increases monocytes activity. However, the results show a decrease in macrophages activity in the mice intestine.